top of page

Biodiversity Beyond Borders

The open oceans and deep seas in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ) account for nearly half of the surface area of the planet and more than 90% of its habitable volume.

Anchor 1

Increasing Use of ABNJ

Between 1950 and 1989, industrial marine fisheries catch in the open-ocean and deep-sea beyond 200 nautical miles from shore increased by a factor of more than 10 and landed value increased by a factor of more than 17. This growth was three times the rate of increase in catch and value within national waters (i.e. within exclusive economic zones) during the same time period.


Related Publications


Towards climate-smart, three-dimensional protected areas for biodiversity conservation in the high seas

Brito-Morales, I., D. Schoeman, C. Klein, D.C. Dunn, J. Everett, et al.

Nat. Clim. Chang.


Multinational coordination required for conservation of over 90% of marine species

Roberson, L., C. O'Hara, J. Watson, B. Halpern, C. Klein, D.C. Dunn, et al.

Glob. Chang. Biol.


Tracking data and the conservation of the High Seas: opportunities and challenges

Davies, T.E., A.P.B. Carneiro, B. Campos, C. Hazin, D.C. Dunn, et al.

Biol. Cons.


Climate Change Considerations are Fundamental to Management of the Deep Sea

Levin, L., C-L Wei, D.C. Dunn, D.J. Amon, O.S. Ashford, et al.

Glob. Chang. Biol.


Beyond static spatial management: scientific and legal considerations for dynamic management in the high seas

Ortuño Crespo, G., D.C. Dunn, K.M. Gjerde, P.N. Halpin, J. Mossop, et al.

Mar. Policy


Considering Indigenous Peoples and local communities in governance of the global ocean commons

Vierros, M., A.-L. Harrison, M. Sloat, G. Ortu�o Crespo, J. Moore, D.C. Dunn, et al.

Mar. Policy


High-seas fish biodiversity is slipping through the

Ortuño Crespo, G., Dunn, D.C., Gianni, M., Gjerde, K., Wright, G., et al.

Nat. Ecol. Evol.


The importance of migratory connectivity to global ocean policy

Dunn, D.C., Harrison, A.-L., Curtice, C., Appeltans, W., Bailey, H., et al.

Proc. R. Soc. B


Incorporating the dynamic and connected nature of the open ocean into governance of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction

Dunn, D.C., Ortuño Crespo, G., Halpin, P.N.

in: Cisneros-Montmayor, A., Cheung, W.W., Ota, Y. (Eds.), Predicting Future Oceans. Elsevier.


Area-based Fisheries Management

Dunn, D.C., Ortuño Crespo, G., Caddell, R.

in: Caddell, R.& E.J.M. (Ed.), Strengthening International Fisheries Law in an Era of Changing Oceans. Hart Publishing.


The Global Ocean Biodiversity Initiative: Promoting scientific support for global ocean governance

Johnson, D., Barrio Frojan, C., Bax, N., Dunstan, P., Woolley, S., et al.

Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst.


Marine spatial planning in areas beyond national jurisdiction

Wright, G., Gjerde, K.M., Johnson, D.E., Finkelstein, A., Ferreira, M.A., et al.

Mar. Policy


A strategy for the conservation of biodiversity on mid-ocean ridges from deep-sea mining

Dunn, D.C., Van Dover, C.L., Etter, R.J., Smith, C.R., Levin, L.A., et al.

Sci. Adv.


Empowering high seas governance with satellite vessel tracking data

Dunn, D.C., Jablonicky, C., Ortu�o Crespo, G., Mccauley, D.J., Kroodsma, D.A., et al.

Fish Fish.


A review of the impacts of fisheries on open-ocean ecosystems

Ortuño Crespo, G., Dunn, D.C.

ICES J. Mar. Sci.


Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas

Bax, N.J., Cleary, J., Donnelly, B., Dunn, D.C., Dunstan, P.K., et al.

Conserv. Biol.


The Convention on Biological Diversity�s Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas: Origins, development, and current status

Dunn, D.C., Ardron, J., Bax, N., Bernal, P., Cleary, J., et al.

Mar. Policy


An ocean of surprises: Trends in human use, unexpected dynamics and governance challenges in areas beyond national jurisdiction

Merrie, A., Dunn, D.C., Metian, M., Boustany, A.M., Takei, Y., et al.

Glob. Environ. Chang.


Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas in the Pelagic Realm: Examples & Guidelines

Dunn, D.C., Ardron, J., Ban, N., Bax, N., Bernal, P., et al.


Anchor 2
bottom of page